Basics of Electronics Circuit Design
An electronic circuit is made up of different components such as diodes, resistors, transistors, and capacitors, connected to each other by means of a wire. Initially, the electronic circuit is initially designed using a breadboard for prototyping. This makes it easier for the designer to make modifications and and improvements in the circuit. These electronic circuits have a wide range of application, from data transfer and signal amplifications to computation. Previously, the components of an electronic circuit were connected to each other through a wire, now however, they are soldered on the printed circuit board (PCB) to interconnections.
Before the invention of integrated circuits (ICs), each individual component of the circuit i.e. diodes, transistors, capacitors, inductors and resistors were of a discrete nature. Now, however, each electronic device is designed and manufactured as a single unit. In order to understand the fundamentals of electronic circuit design, it is necessary to become familiar with the components of the system.
An analogue electronic circuit design is that in voltage or current varies with time. Transistors, capacitors, resistors, diodes and wires are the basic constituents of an analog circuit. Electrical signals in such circuits are continuous and can be represented using schematic diagrams in which wires are represented as lines and a unique symbol denotes each component. Every analog circuit design consists of parallel or series, or both circuits.
A digital electronic circuit measures electrical signals a discrete values. The data in digital circuits is represented as binary digits. Digital circuits largely consist of transistors in interconnection to create logic gates and can perform calculations.
The various components and interconnections in an electronic circuit are represented using a schematic circuit diagram that makes use of standardized symbols for each component. These diagrams help to design, construct and optimize the electronic devices.
When designing analog or digital circuits, one should easily be capable of predicting the current and voltage values at each node with in the circuit. Simple non-linear and linear circuits are analyzed by hand through mathematical computations, whereas the use of software is required to perform analysis of the complex circuits. The use of simulation software makes designing circuits more effectively possible, reducing the cost, time and risk involved in actually manufacturing the circuit prototypes.
The electronic circuit simulator is a software that utilizes mathematical models to predict, replicate and analyze the nature of an electronic circuit, removing limitations imposed by expensive tools such as photomasks for ICs. SPICE is the simulation software used for designing analog circuits, whereas Verilog and VHDL are mostly used for digital circuit simulations.